[PDF] Social Norms Download Full

Social Norms PDF
Author: Michael Hechter
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610442806
Size: 57.18 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 452
View: 3396

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Social Norms

by Michael Hechter, Social Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Social Norms book, Social norms are rules that prescribe what people should and should not do given their social surroundings and circumstances. Norms instruct people to keep their promises, to drive on the right, or to abide by the golden rule. They are useful explanatory tools, employed to analyze phenomena as grand as international diplomacy and as mundane as the rules of the road. But our knowledge of norms is scattered across disciplines and research traditions, with no clear consensus on how the term should be used. Research on norms has focused on the content and the consequences of norms, without paying enough attention to their causes. Social Norms reaches across the disciplines of sociology, economics, game theory, and legal studies to provide a well-integrated theoretical and empirical account of how norms emerge, change, persist, or die out. Social Norms opens with a critical review of the many outstanding issues in the research on norms: When are norms simply devices to ease cooperation, and when do they carry intrinsic moral weight? Do norms evolve gradually over time or spring up spontaneously as circumstances change? The volume then turns to case studies on the birth and death of norms in a variety of contexts, from protest movements, to marriage, to mushroom collecting. The authors detail the concrete social processes, such as repeated interactions, social learning, threats and sanctions, that produce, sustain, and enforce norms. One case study explains how it can become normative for citizens to participate in political protests in times of social upheaval. Another case study examines how the norm of objectivity in American journalism emerged: Did it arise by consensus as the professional creed of the press corps, or was it imposed upon journalists by their employers? A third case study examines the emergence of the norm of national self-determination: has it diffused as an element of global culture, or was it imposed by the actions of powerful states? The book concludes with an examination of what we know of norm emergence, highlighting areas of agreement and points of contradiction between the disciplines. Norms may be useful in explaining other phenomena in society, but until we have a coherent theory of their origins we have not truly explained norms themselves. Social Norms moves us closer to a true understanding of this ubiquitous feature of social life.



[PDF] Law And Social Norms Download Full

Law and Social Norms PDF
Author: Eric A. Posner
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674042308
Size: 63.79 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 3494

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Law And Social Norms

by Eric A. Posner, Law And Social Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Law And Social Norms book, What is the role of law in a society in which order is maintained mostly through social norms, trust, and nonlegal sanctions? Eric Posner argues that social norms are sometimes desirable yet sometimes odious, and that the law is critical to enhancing good social norms and undermining bad ones. But he also argues that the proper regulation of social norms is a delicate and complex task, and that current understanding of social norms is inadequate for guiding judges and lawmakers. What is needed, and what this book offers, is a model of the relationship between law and social norms. The model shows that people's concern with establishing cooperative relationships leads them to engage in certain kinds of imitative behavior. The resulting behavioral patterns are called social norms. Posner applies the model to several areas of law that involve the regulation of social norms, including laws governing gift-giving and nonprofit organizations; family law; criminal law; laws governing speech, voting, and discrimination; and contract law. Among the engaging questions posed are: Would the legalization of gay marriage harm traditional married couples? Is it beneficial to shame criminals? Why should the law reward those who make charitable contributions? Would people vote more if non-voters were penalized? The author approaches these questions using the tools of game theory, but his arguments are simply stated and make no technical demands on the reader.



[PDF] Experimenting With Social Norms Download Full

Experimenting with Social Norms PDF
Author: Jean Ensminger
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610448405
Size: 35.76 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 492
View: 5715

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Experimenting With Social Norms

by Jean Ensminger, Experimenting With Social Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Experimenting With Social Norms book, Questions about the origins of human cooperation have long puzzled and divided scientists. Social norms that foster fair-minded behavior, altruism and collective action undergird the foundations of large-scale human societies, but we know little about how these norms develop or spread, or why the intensity and breadth of human cooperation varies among different populations. What is the connection between social norms that encourage fair dealing and economic growth? How are these social norms related to the emergence of centralized institutions? Informed by a pioneering set of cross-cultural data, Experimenting with Social Norms advances our understanding of the evolution of human cooperation and the expansion of complex societies. Editors Jean Ensminger and Joseph Henrich present evidence from an exciting collaboration between anthropologists and economists. Using experimental economics games, researchers examined levels of fairness, cooperation, and norms for punishing those who violate expectations of equality across a diverse swath of societies, from hunter-gatherers in Tanzania to a small town in rural Missouri. These experiments tested individuals’ willingness to conduct mutually beneficial transactions with strangers that reap rewards only at the expense of taking a risk on the cooperation of others. The results show a robust relationship between exposure to market economies and social norms that benefit the group over narrow economic self-interest. Levels of fairness and generosity are generally higher among individuals in communities with more integrated markets. Religion also plays a powerful role. Individuals practicing either Islam or Christianity exhibited a stronger sense of fairness, possibly because religions with high moralizing deities, equipped with ample powers to reward and punish, encourage greater prosociality. The size of the settlement also had an impact. People in larger communities were more willing to punish unfairness compared to those in smaller societies. Taken together, the volume supports the hypothesis that social norms evolved over thousands of years to allow strangers in more complex and large settlements to coexist, trade and prosper. Innovative and ambitious, Experimenting with Social Norms synthesizes an unprecedented analysis of social behavior from an immense range of human societies. The fifteen case studies analyzed in this volume, which include field experiments in Africa, South America, New Guinea, Siberia and the United States, are available for free download on the Foundation’s website:www.russellsage.org.



[PDF] The Possibility Of Norms Download Full

The Possibility of Norms PDF
Author: Christoph Möllers
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198827393
Size: 36.64 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 336
View: 2052

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The Possibility Of Norms

by Christoph Möllers, The Possibility Of Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The Possibility Of Norms book, What defines the social practices we currently call norms? They make theft forbidden, eating with a fork advisable, and paintings beautiful. Norms are commonly thought of as moral justifications for doing one thing and not doing another. They are also described in terms of their outcomes or effects, serving as mere causal explanations. The Possibility of Norms proposes a broader view of how norms function, how they are articulated, and how they are realized. It may be asking too much if we expect norms to be effective or morally right. Many norms are simply ineffective and many are at most ineffectively justifiable. Drawing upon a rich array of texts - from law and jurisprudence to philosophy, aesthetics, and the social sciences - M�llers argues for conceiving of social norms as positively marked possibilities. Positively marking a possibility indicates that it should be realized. Normativity thus hinges on judging the world from a distance and acknowledging the possibility of divergent states of the world. Hence, it is no longer theoretically problematic that there are morally unjustified norms, nor that norms can be broken. On the contrary, allowing for breaches may be an important feature of normativity. M�llers's conceptual study sheds new light on a range of paradigms in the humanities, social sciences, and cultural studies, reframing several aspects of norm theory and questioning the theoretical assumptions underlying existing empirical work on normativity.



[PDF] Parties Dorms And Social Norms Download Full

Parties  Dorms and Social Norms PDF
Author: Lisa M. Meeks
Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
ISBN: 1784501921
Size: 51.31 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Young Adult Nonfiction
Languages : en
Pages : 288
View: 4674

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Parties Dorms And Social Norms

by Lisa M. Meeks, Parties Dorms And Social Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Parties Dorms And Social Norms book, The late teens and twenties are exciting times, but filled with potential pitfalls as young people navigate the transition into independent adult life. This handbook is filled with the information that young people with ASD say they want (and need) to know about alcohol and drugs, social media and online safety, relationship types and boundaries, safe sex, stress and emotional health, and independent living. It includes real life examples, coping strategies and practical tips to help young adults with ASD stay safe while living life to the full. Informal and frank, this will be a go-to guide for young people on the autism spectrum.



[PDF] The Normative Animal Download Full

The Normative Animal  PDF
Author: Neil Roughley
Publisher: Foundations of Human Interacti
ISBN: 0190846461
Size: 17.81 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 392
View: 6256

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The Normative Animal

by Neil Roughley, The Normative Animal Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The Normative Animal book, It is often claimed that humans are rational, linguistic, cultural, or moral creatures. What these characterizations may all have in common is the more fundamental claim that humans are normative animals, in the sense that they are creatures whose lives are structured at a fundamental level by their relationships to norms. The various capacities singled out by discussion of rational, linguistic, cultural, or moral animals might then all essentially involve an orientation to obligations, permissions and prohibitions. And, if this is so, then perhaps it is a basic susceptibility, or proclivity to normative or deontic regulation of thought and behavior that enables humans to develop the various specific features of their life form. This volume of new essays investigates the claim that humans are essentially normative animals in this sense. The contributors do so by looking at the nature and relations of three types of norms, or putative norms-social, moral, and linguistic-and asking whether they might all be different expressions of one basic structure unique to humankind. These questions are posed by philosophers, primatologists, behavioral biologists, psychologists, linguists, and cultural anthropologists, who have collaborated on this topic for many years. The contributors are committed to the idea that understanding normativity is a two-way process, involving a close interaction between conceptual clarification and empirical research.



[PDF] Shame And Social Work Download Full

Shame and Social Work PDF
Author: Liz Frost
Publisher:
ISBN: 1447344065
Size: 66.39 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 200
View: 1182

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Shame And Social Work

by Liz Frost, Shame And Social Work Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Shame And Social Work book, Examining experiences of shame and stigma in the context of austerity and the declining welfare state, this book shows how social work can ameliorate the impacts of shame through sensitive, reflective and relationship-based practice. It provides a broad understanding of shame and looks at its impact on both service users and practitioners.



[PDF] Culturally Sustainable Social Robotics Download Full

Culturally Sustainable Social Robotics PDF
Author: M. Nørskov
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1643681559
Size: 72.42 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 702
View: 6131

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Culturally Sustainable Social Robotics

by M. Nørskov, Culturally Sustainable Social Robotics Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Culturally Sustainable Social Robotics book, The subject of social robotics has enormous projected economic significance. However, social robots not only present us with novel opportunities but also with novel risks that go far beyond safety issues. It is a potentially highly disruptive technology which could negatively affect the most valuable parts of the fabric of human social interactions in irreparable ways. Since engineering educations do not yet offer the necessary competences to analyze, holistically assess, and constructively mitigate these risks, new alliances must be established between engineering and SSH disciplines, with special emphasis on the humanities (i.e. disciplines specializing in the analysis of socio-cultural interactions and human experience). The Robophilosophy Conference Series was established in 2014 with the purpose of creating a new forum and catalyzing the research discussion in this important area of applied humanities research, with focus on robophilosophy. Robophilosophy conferences have been the world’s largest venues for humanities research in and on social robotics. The book at hand presents the proceedings of Robophilosophy Conference 2020: Culturally Sustainable Social Robotics, the fourth event in the international, biennial Robophilosophy Conference Series, which brought together close to 400 participants from 29 countries. The speakers of the conference, whose contributions are collected in this volume, were invited to offer concrete proposals for how the Humanities can help to shape a future where social robotics is guided by the goals of enhancing socio-cultural values rather than by utility alone. The book is divided into 3 parts; Abstracts of Plenaries, which contains 6 plenary sessions; Session Papers, with 44 papers under 8 thematic categories; and Workshops, containing 25 items on 5 selected topics. Providing concrete proposals from philosophers and other SSH researchers for new models and methods, this book will be of interest to all those involved in developing artificial ‘social’ agents in a culturally sustainable way that is also – a fortiori – ethically responsible.



[PDF] Social Conventions Download Full

Social Conventions PDF
Author: Andrei Marmor
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691162239
Size: 71.43 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 200
View: 4805

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Social Conventions

by Andrei Marmor, Social Conventions Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Social Conventions book, Social conventions are those arbitrary rules and norms governing the countless behaviors all of us engage in every day without necessarily thinking about them, from shaking hands when greeting someone to driving on the right side of the road. In this book, Andrei Marmor offers a pathbreaking and comprehensive philosophical analysis of conventions and the roles they play in social life and practical reason, and in doing so challenges the dominant view of social conventions first laid out by David Lewis. Marmor begins by giving a general account of the nature of conventions, explaining the differences between coordinative and constitutive conventions and between deep and surface conventions. He then applies this analysis to explain how conventions work in language, morality, and law. Marmor clearly demonstrates that many important semantic and pragmatic aspects of language assumed by many theorists to be conventional are in fact not, and that the role of conventions in the moral domain is surprisingly complex, playing mostly an auxiliary and supportive role. Importantly, he casts new light on the conventional foundations of law, arguing that the distinction between deep and surface conventions can be used to answer the prevalent objections to legal conventionalism. Social Conventions is a much-needed reappraisal of the nature of the rules that regulate virtually every aspect of human conduct.



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