[PDF] Social Norms Download Full

Social Norms PDF
Author: Michael Hechter
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610442806
Size: 54.40 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 452
View: 6372

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Social Norms

by Michael Hechter, Social Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Social Norms book, Social norms are rules that prescribe what people should and should not do given their social surroundings and circumstances. Norms instruct people to keep their promises, to drive on the right, or to abide by the golden rule. They are useful explanatory tools, employed to analyze phenomena as grand as international diplomacy and as mundane as the rules of the road. But our knowledge of norms is scattered across disciplines and research traditions, with no clear consensus on how the term should be used. Research on norms has focused on the content and the consequences of norms, without paying enough attention to their causes. Social Norms reaches across the disciplines of sociology, economics, game theory, and legal studies to provide a well-integrated theoretical and empirical account of how norms emerge, change, persist, or die out. Social Norms opens with a critical review of the many outstanding issues in the research on norms: When are norms simply devices to ease cooperation, and when do they carry intrinsic moral weight? Do norms evolve gradually over time or spring up spontaneously as circumstances change? The volume then turns to case studies on the birth and death of norms in a variety of contexts, from protest movements, to marriage, to mushroom collecting. The authors detail the concrete social processes, such as repeated interactions, social learning, threats and sanctions, that produce, sustain, and enforce norms. One case study explains how it can become normative for citizens to participate in political protests in times of social upheaval. Another case study examines how the norm of objectivity in American journalism emerged: Did it arise by consensus as the professional creed of the press corps, or was it imposed upon journalists by their employers? A third case study examines the emergence of the norm of national self-determination: has it diffused as an element of global culture, or was it imposed by the actions of powerful states? The book concludes with an examination of what we know of norm emergence, highlighting areas of agreement and points of contradiction between the disciplines. Norms may be useful in explaining other phenomena in society, but until we have a coherent theory of their origins we have not truly explained norms themselves. Social Norms moves us closer to a true understanding of this ubiquitous feature of social life.



[PDF] Experimenting With Social Norms Download Full

Experimenting with Social Norms PDF
Author: Jean Ensminger
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610448405
Size: 14.63 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 492
View: 1864

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Experimenting With Social Norms

by Jean Ensminger, Experimenting With Social Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Experimenting With Social Norms book, Questions about the origins of human cooperation have long puzzled and divided scientists. Social norms that foster fair-minded behavior, altruism and collective action undergird the foundations of large-scale human societies, but we know little about how these norms develop or spread, or why the intensity and breadth of human cooperation varies among different populations. What is the connection between social norms that encourage fair dealing and economic growth? How are these social norms related to the emergence of centralized institutions? Informed by a pioneering set of cross-cultural data, Experimenting with Social Norms advances our understanding of the evolution of human cooperation and the expansion of complex societies. Editors Jean Ensminger and Joseph Henrich present evidence from an exciting collaboration between anthropologists and economists. Using experimental economics games, researchers examined levels of fairness, cooperation, and norms for punishing those who violate expectations of equality across a diverse swath of societies, from hunter-gatherers in Tanzania to a small town in rural Missouri. These experiments tested individuals’ willingness to conduct mutually beneficial transactions with strangers that reap rewards only at the expense of taking a risk on the cooperation of others. The results show a robust relationship between exposure to market economies and social norms that benefit the group over narrow economic self-interest. Levels of fairness and generosity are generally higher among individuals in communities with more integrated markets. Religion also plays a powerful role. Individuals practicing either Islam or Christianity exhibited a stronger sense of fairness, possibly because religions with high moralizing deities, equipped with ample powers to reward and punish, encourage greater prosociality. The size of the settlement also had an impact. People in larger communities were more willing to punish unfairness compared to those in smaller societies. Taken together, the volume supports the hypothesis that social norms evolved over thousands of years to allow strangers in more complex and large settlements to coexist, trade and prosper. Innovative and ambitious, Experimenting with Social Norms synthesizes an unprecedented analysis of social behavior from an immense range of human societies. The fifteen case studies analyzed in this volume, which include field experiments in Africa, South America, New Guinea, Siberia and the United States, are available for free download on the Foundation’s website:www.russellsage.org.



[PDF] Law And Social Norms Download Full

Law and Social Norms PDF
Author: Eric A. Posner
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674042308
Size: 57.55 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 4660

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Law And Social Norms

by Eric A. Posner, Law And Social Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Law And Social Norms book, What is the role of law in a society in which order is maintained mostly through social norms, trust, and nonlegal sanctions? Eric Posner argues that social norms are sometimes desirable yet sometimes odious, and that the law is critical to enhancing good social norms and undermining bad ones. But he also argues that the proper regulation of social norms is a delicate and complex task, and that current understanding of social norms is inadequate for guiding judges and lawmakers. What is needed, and what this book offers, is a model of the relationship between law and social norms. The model shows that people's concern with establishing cooperative relationships leads them to engage in certain kinds of imitative behavior. The resulting behavioral patterns are called social norms. Posner applies the model to several areas of law that involve the regulation of social norms, including laws governing gift-giving and nonprofit organizations; family law; criminal law; laws governing speech, voting, and discrimination; and contract law. Among the engaging questions posed are: Would the legalization of gay marriage harm traditional married couples? Is it beneficial to shame criminals? Why should the law reward those who make charitable contributions? Would people vote more if non-voters were penalized? The author approaches these questions using the tools of game theory, but his arguments are simply stated and make no technical demands on the reader.



[PDF] Choosing Models Of Society And Social Norms Download Full

Choosing Models of Society and Social Norms PDF
Author: Adolfo Critto
Publisher: University Press of America
ISBN: 9780761814542
Size: 46.79 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 341
View: 3467

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Choosing Models Of Society And Social Norms

by Adolfo Critto, Choosing Models Of Society And Social Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Choosing Models Of Society And Social Norms book, Choosing Models of Society and Social Norms offers an innovative approach to social norms and decision-making that encourages the identification of social norms, along with their causes and consequences. Adolfo Critto points out that social norms condition behavior, but are also conditioned by human decisions. He notes that social norms generally only provide partial and temporary solutions to human needs and problems, so must be critically analyzed in order to understand their relationship to decision making. Critto approaches this relationship through "sacred" (focused on transcendent ends) and "expedient" (focused on efficient means) value orientations, warning that a one-sided focus on either of these orientations leads to inconsistency. He stresses the importance of language, communication, and education, showing how they relate to social norms. Through his analysis, the author provides an understanding of the creation of social norms, what influences them, and the evaluation of those that already exist.



[PDF] Personality And Social Norms Download Full

Personality And Social Norms PDF
Author: Anita Sharma And Dalip Malhotra
Publisher: Concept Publishing Company
ISBN: 9788180694844
Size: 12.64 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Personality development
Languages : en
Pages : 285
View: 6000

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Personality And Social Norms

by Anita Sharma And Dalip Malhotra, Personality And Social Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Personality And Social Norms book, Study conducted among the 500 students of Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India.



[PDF] Social Norms And Economic Institutions Download Full

Social Norms and Economic Institutions PDF
Author: Kenneth J. Koford
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
ISBN: 9780472102426
Size: 13.81 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 258
View: 7713

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Social Norms And Economic Institutions

by Kenneth J. Koford, Social Norms And Economic Institutions Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Social Norms And Economic Institutions book, Examines the role of values and social norms in the functioning of economic institutions



[PDF] Institutions Social Norms And Economic Development Download Full

Institutions  Social Norms and Economic Development PDF
Author: Jean-Philippe Platteau
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136600442
Size: 79.26 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 361
View: 1708

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Institutions Social Norms And Economic Development

by Jean-Philippe Platteau, Institutions Social Norms And Economic Development Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Institutions Social Norms And Economic Development book, In order for economic specialization to develop, it is important that well-defined property rights are established and that suspicion and fear of fraud do not pervade transactions. Such conditions cannot be created ex abrubto, but must somehow evolve. What needs to develop is not only suitable practices and rules themselves, but also the public agencies and moral environment without which generalized trust is difficult to establish. The cultural endowment of societies as they have developed over their particular histories is bound to play a major role in this regard, and the matter of cultual endowment is one of the central themes of this book. On the other hand, division of labour does not only require well-enforced property rights and trust in economic dealings. It is also critically conditioned by the thickness of economic space, itself dependent on population density. This provides the second major theme of the volume: market development, including the development of private property rights is not possible, or will remain very incomplete, if populations are thinly spread over large areas of land. The book makes special reference to sub-Saharan Africa.



[PDF] The Complexity Of Social Norms Download Full

The Complexity of Social Norms PDF
Author: Maria Xenitidou
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319053086
Size: 31.81 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 205
View: 3780

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The Complexity Of Social Norms

by Maria Xenitidou, The Complexity Of Social Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The Complexity Of Social Norms book, This book explores the view that normative behaviour is part of a complex of social mechanisms, processes and narratives that are constantly shifting. From this perspective, norms are not a kind of self-contained social object or fact, but rather an interplay of many things that we label as norms when we ‘take a snapshot’ of them at a particular instant. Further, this book pursues the hypothesis that considering the dynamic aspects of these phenomena sheds new light on them. The sort of issues that this perspective opens to exploration include: Of what is this complex we call a "social norm" composed of? How do new social norms emerge and what kind of circumstances might facilitate such an appearance? How context-specific are the norms and patterns of normative behaviour that arise? How do the cognitive and the social aspects of norms interact over time? How do expectations, beliefs and individual rationality interact with social norm complexes to effect behaviour? How does our social embeddedness relate to social constraint upon behaviour? How might the socio-cognitive complexes that we call norms be usefully researched?



[PDF] Norms In The Wild Download Full

Norms in the Wild PDF
Author: Carol and Michael Lowenstein Endowed Term Chair Cristina Bicchieri
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190622059
Size: 53.85 MB
Format: PDF
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 248
View: 899

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Norms In The Wild

by Carol and Michael Lowenstein Endowed Term Chair Cristina Bicchieri, Norms In The Wild Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Norms In The Wild book, In Norms in the Wild, distinguished philosopher Cristina Bicchieri argues that when it comes to human behavior, social scientists place too much stress on rational deliberation. In fact, she says, many choices occur without much deliberation at all. Two people passing in a corridorautomatically negotiate their shared space; cars at an intersection obey traffic signals; we choose clothing based on our instincts for what is considered appropriate. Bicchieri's theory of social norms accounts for these automatic components of coordination, where individuals react automatically tocues that focus their attention on what the norm is in that situation. Social norms thus act as rules for making choices in a social world where people expect others - often unconsciously - to follow the same rule. Some norms enable seamless social co-operation, while others are less beneficial tohuman flourishing.Bicchieri is famous for her interdisciplinary work on game theory and most recently her work on social norms, and Norms in the Wild represents her latest challenge to many of the fundamental assumptions of the social sciences. Bicchieri's work has broad implications not only for understanding humanbehavior, but for changing it for better outcomes. People have a strongly conditioned preference for following social norms, but that also means that manipulating their expectations can cause major behavioral changes. Bicchieri has been working recently with UNICEF and other NGO's to explore theapplicability of her views to issues of human rights around the world. Is it possible to change social expectations around forced marriage, genital mutilations, and public health practices like vaccinations and sanitation? If so, how? What tools might we use? This short book explores how socialnorms work, and how changing them - changing preferences, beliefs, and especially social expectations - can potentially improve lives all around the world. It will appeal to an unusually broad range of readers including philosophers, psychologists and others in behavioral sciences, and anyoneinvolved in public policy or at NGOs.



[PDF] A Sociocognitive Approach To Social Norms Download Full

A Sociocognitive Approach to Social Norms PDF
Author: Nicole Dubois
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134517696
Size: 22.90 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 278
View: 5741

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A Sociocognitive Approach To Social Norms

by Nicole Dubois, A Sociocognitive Approach To Social Norms Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download A Sociocognitive Approach To Social Norms book, Societies and groups attribute greater value to some behaviours and some judgments. These 'norms' are what is most important for understanding how behaviours and judgments are socially regulated. The approach presented examines in particular the social foundations of our judgments.



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